The Downy Mildew Effector Proteins ATR1 and ATR13 Promote Disease Susceptibility in Arabidopsis thaliana
Sohn, Kee Hoon; Lei, Rita; Nemri, Adnane; Jones, Jonathan D.G.
The downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica) effector proteins ATR1 and ATR13 trigger RPP1-Nd/WsB– and RPP13-Nd–dependent resistance, respectively, in Arabidopsis thaliana. To better understand the functions of these effectors during compatible and incompatible interactions of H. parasitica isolates on Arabidopsis accessions, we developed a novel delivery system using Pseudomonas syringae type III secretion via fusions of ATRs to the N terminus of the P. syringae effector protein, AvrRPS4. ATR1 and ATR13 both triggered the hypersensitive response (HR) and resistance to bacterial pathogens in Arabidopsis carrying RPP1-Nd/WsB or RPP13-Nd, respectively, when delivered from P. syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000. In addition, multiple alleles of ATR1 and ATR13 confer enhanced virulence to Pst DC3000 on susceptible Arabidopsis accessions. We conclude that ATR1 and ATR13 positively contribute to pathogen virulence inside host cells. Two ATR13 alleles suppressed bacterial PAMP (for Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns)-triggered callose deposition in susceptible Arabidopsis when delivered by DC3000 CEL mutants. Furthermore, expression of another allele of ATR13 in plant cells suppressed PAMP-triggered reactive oxygen species production in addition to callose deposition. Intriguingly, although Wassilewskija (Ws-0) is highly susceptible to H. parasitica isolate Emco5, ATR13Emco5 when delivered by Pst DC3000 triggered localized immunity, including HR, on Ws-0. We suggest that an additional H. parasitica Emco5 effector might suppress ATR13-triggered immunity.